All the incorporated studies originated from both the us (n=16), the united kingdom (n=3) otherwise Canada (n=2). From the, 14 knowledge toward causation and you may eight education on contrary causality was indeed located. Meta-analyses indicated that low income was for the next carrying excess fat (Otherwise step 1.twenty-seven, 95% CI step 1.10 to a single.47; exposure proportion 1.52, 95% CI step 1.08 in order to dos.13), although the analytical significance vanished after modified to have book prejudice. Studies into the opposite causality indicated a consistent family ranging from being obese and you can subsequent earnings, despite providing guide bias into consideration (standardised suggest huge difference ?0.fifteen, 95% CI ?0.30 so you’re able to 0.01). Sensitiveness analyses intended the relationship try influenced by being obese dimension, sex, length of observation and study top quality.